About an inch thick, tablets came in various shapes and sizes. The Ancient Classics in the Mediaeval Libraries.  "[F]ormerly paper was rare and expensive, so every spare page of available books was pressed into use. 4 We asked these respondents who have personal or family experiences with libraries a series of questions about how important they consider various library services, including various library resources and activities. Through Origen and especially the scholarly presbyter Pamphilus of Caesarea, an avid collector of books of Scripture, the theological school of Caesarea won a reputation for having the most extensive ecclesiastical library of the time, containing more than 30,000 manuscripts: Gregory Nazianzus, Basil the Great, Jerome and others came and studied there. The advocacy of Ewart and Brotherton then succeeded in having a select committee set up to consider public library provision. There is also evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC and those at Nineveh about 700 BC showing a library classification system.. The Phoenix Society was one such society, which began in New York in 1833 with one of the founding goals being to ‘‘establish circulating libraries . The Maker Movement and Maker-spaces are a new trend designed to foster creativity and provide a space for library users to tinker, invent and socialize. ", "The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's U.S. Library Program distributes final round of grant applications", "Budget in the Crosshairs? Over 30,000 clay tablets from the Library of Ashurbanipal have been discovered at Nineveh, providing modern scholars with an amazing wealth of Mesopotamian literary, religious and administrative work. The history of African Americans and libraries in the United States is one with a rich heritage. As reported by observers, at the time of unearthing the Library, the alphabet used in the manuscripts was unknown to the ordinary people. , Two more libraries were added by the Emperor Tiberius on Palatine Hill and one by Vespasian after 70.  It also served as a repository of several ecumenical councils such as the Council of Nicea, Council of Ephesus, and the Council of Chalcedon. Students of history learn good habits of thought. The worldâs oldest known library was founded sometime in the 7th century B.C. Each ruler in China compiled its own official written archives. Black, Alastair. Where traditions and history used to be oral, the need to preserve the words of the Quran necessitated a method of preserving the words by some means other than orally. The Islamic Era and Its Importance to Knowledge and the Development of Libraries. A Brief History of Library Service to African Americans. The Evolution of the Porticus Octaviae. In France, the first national library was the Bibliothèque Mazarine, which evolved from its origin as a royal library founded at the Louvre Palace by Charles V in 1368. Cosimo de Medici in Florence established his own collection, which formed the basis of the Laurentian Library. Shrewsbury School also opened its library to townsfolk. Thus, in the 6th century, at the close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria. As noted previously, influenced by the ideals of Gabriel Naude, Cardinal Jules Mazarin proclaimed his library "open to everybody without exception". Importance of public library services. A library is an important source of knowledge to young minds in schools.It develops the important habit of reading among the students. Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library, Sir Robert Cotton, 1st Baronet, of Connington, "Clay cuneiform tablets from ancient Mesopotamia to be placed online", "Episode 1: The Shores of the Cosmic Ocean", Journal of the American Academy of Religion, "Oral Transmission and The Book in Islamic Education: The Spoken and The Written Word", "تایخچه کتابخانه در ایران - پایگاه مجلات تخصصی نور", "The Deed For Endowment: Rab' I-Rashidi (Rab I-Rashidi Endowment) 13th Century manuscript", International dictionary of library histories, "Montecassino, one of the most important libraries in the world", "Norwich City Library 1608–1737: The Minutes, Donation Book and Catalogue of Norwich City Library, Founded in 1608", "Bibliotheca Palatina – The Story of a World-Famous Library", http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/findhelprestype/manuscripts/cottonmss/cottonmss.html, "An Act for the better settling and preserving the Library kept in the House at Westminster called Cotton House in the Name and Family of the Cottons for the Benefit of the Publick", "Creating a Great Museum: Early Collectors and The British Museum", "Jefferson's Legacy • A Brief History of the Library of Congress", "FEMA Recognizes Libraries as Essential Community Organizations", "For Disaster Preparedness: Pack A Library Card? The study of history helps instruct one in skills that have universal application, no matter what oneâs life work might become.  Other early town libraries of the UK include those of Ipswich (1612), Bristol (founded in 1613 and opened in 1615), and Leicester (1632). , The American School Library (1839) was an early frontier traveling library in the United States. The materials available to subscribers tended to focus on particular subject areas, such as biography, history, philosophy, theology, and travel, rather than works of fiction, particularly the novel. The first libraries appeared five thousand years ago in Southwest Asia's Fertile Crescent, an area that ran from Mesopotamia to the Nile in Africa.  By 1890 the library had outgrown its space and a new building was constructed. Why Do We Study History (Remastered) from James Nagle. The "libraries" were cataloged using colophons, which are a publisher's imprint on the spine of a book, or in this case a tablet. Effects of the Reformation and religious wars, 17th and 18th centuries and the great national libraries, Associations and international organizations. The Ancient Classics in the Mediaeval Libraries. This review of the literature responds to Daniel Bell, F. W. Lancaster, and others who have predicted the end of the library with the coming of the postindustrial, "paperless" society. Lending was a means by which books could be copied and spread. The library had a diverse set of patrons of whom a large percentage were middle-class and non-academic users. Christianity was a new force in Europe and many of the faithful saw Hellenistic culture as pagan. Archaeology, 13(3), 172–77. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing – the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. , The Liverpool Subscription library was a gentlemen only library. Buddhist scriptures, educational materials, and histories were stored in libraries in pre-modern Southeast Asia. The year 1876 is key in the history of librarianship in the United States. A study group of 4 of us met three days a week at 7pm here as we worked through freshman calculus together. Findings revealed that with books in close Some of the earliest such institutions were founded in late 17th-century England, such as Chetham's Library in 1653, Innerpeffray Library in 1680 and Thomas Plume's Library in 1704.  "These 'libraries' would be called rental collections today. For instance the Ducal Palace library of Urbino contains an older library with texts which mainly served to record the history of the Duke of Urbino's family and show his magnificence, and a newer library which was an information retrieval system for research and discussion by contemporary scholars. This equips history graduates to understand and work with the people in their own world. The 18th century saw the switch from closed parochial libraries to lending libraries. Norwich was the eleventh library to open, in 1857, after Winchester, Manchester, Liverpool, Bolton, Kidderminster, Cambridge, Birkenhead and Sheffield. In Philadelphia, Franklin formed "a club of mutual improvements" calling themselves the "Junto", which meant a council or a combination of individuals organized for a specific purpose. Library science is the field of study that teaches how to manage books and other information, particularly through collecting, preserving, and organizing books and other materials in libraries. The plan of a Russian public library was submitted to Catherine in 1766 but the Empress did not approve the project for the imperial library until 27 May [O.S. William Bathoe claimed that his commercial venture was 'the Original Circulating library', opening doors at two locations in London in 1737. At the death of Charles VI, this first collection was unilaterally bought by the English regent of France, the Duke of Bedford, who transferred it to England in 1424. We can note trends in history and patterns, and we learn that there has never been a perfect, golden era. Malatesta Novello, lord of Cesena, founded the Malatestiana Library. Within the subject, the materials were further organized by when the libraries gained the item, not by last name of the author or the title of the book. They analyze ideas and data, and develop original interpretations of such materials. The Reformation did not just inspire a redistribution of power but also a redistribution of wealth and knowledge. In the 10th century, Ibn al-Nadim, a well-known Muslim bibliographer, stated that following the conquest, the majority of the resources in different streams of science were taken from Persia's main libraries to Egypt. Those libraries within the kingdom had two major functions: the first came from the need to keep the records of administrative documents including transactions, governmental orders, and budget allocation within and between the Satrapies and the central ruling State. Moreover, the library was not open to browsing. This new institution was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public and aiming to collect everything. Trajan's Column separated the Greek and Latin rooms which faced each other. Often the plunder of this conflict included the recovery of books from looted monasteries and libraries. , The Library of Alexandria, in Egypt, was the largest and most significant great library of the ancient world. Its famous circular Reading Room was opened in 1857. It holds over 20,000 volumes, 2,500 periodical volumes and 8,000 pamphlets.  They led the establishment of 75–80 percent of the libraries in communities across the country.  Later, the Emperor Valens hired Greek and Latin scribes full-time with from the royal treasury to copy and repair manuscripts. Also, in Eastern Christianity monastery libraries kept important manuscripts. Library - Library - The history of libraries: In earliest times there was no distinction between a record room (or archive) and a library, and in this sense libraries can be said to have existed for almost as long as records have been kept. Since the 1960s, issues of computerization and digitization have arisen. Another funder for building libraries, especially in African American communities in the South, was the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Catalogues were made which appeared from 1739 to 1753 in 11 volumes.  The libraries often employed translators and copyists in large numbers, in order to render into Arabic the bulk of the available Persian, Greek, Roman and Sanskrit non-fiction and the classics of literature. Importance of Library.  In the eleventh century movable type was developed in China and Koreans established the first foundry for producing movable type. Since the 1960s, issues of computerization and digitization have arisen. The content of a bookshelf was recorded on paper and attached to the end of shelf. Strocka, Volke, M. (2003). Andrew Carnegie 1886 â Gave money to build a public library in Allegheny, PA If any city would agree to maintain a free public library, he would build a library building. Libraries in the Ancient World. Writings the sixth-century philosopher, Confucius, were originally inscribed on stone tablets. As well as a creating space for a black literary tradition, these societies provided libraries to their members, often through subscriptions. , Philanthropists and businessmen, including John Passmore Edwards, Henry Tate and Andrew Carnegie, helped to increase the number of public libraries from the late 19th century. In each department, catalogues were placed on a shelf... the rooms were furnished with carpets". Many history students are also endowed with healthy scepticism.  An early organization system was in effect at Alexandria. The Capitalist economic model had created a significant amount of free time for workers, and the middle classes were concerned that the workers' free time was not being well-spent. , In 1997, Bill and Melinda Gates worked on their first major philanthropic venture call the U.S. Library Program. The project was created to encourage the development of libraries in underserved areas and to boost employment. 7 years ago.  During this time the Afrikaans government became responsible for Black library provisions while the provinces became responsible for Colored, Indian and White library provisions, a fact that took two years for the South African Library Association to find out.. For example, pretend two students turned in papers on the topic âeating disorders among African-Americans.â The colophons stated the series name, the title of the tablet, and any extra information the scribe needed to indicate. See, Beddie, J. Upon the spread of Islam, libraries in newly Islamic lands (7th–14th century) had a strength organization and knew a brief period of expansion in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily, and Spain. Casson, 2001, p. 84; Buchanan, 2012, pp. The first libraries in Muslim lands were not necessarily for the public, but they contained much knowledge. Forster, Geoffrey, and Alan Bell. Casson, 2001, p. 81; Buchanan, 2012, p. 61; Richardson, L. (1976).  Surprisingly, old Roman textbooks on grammar were still being used at that time. , In England, Sir Richard Bentley's Proposal for Building a Royal Library published in 1694 stimulated renewed interest in the subject. This transfer established the formation of the British Library. 1381.  Additionally, Virgil was universally represented at most of the medieval libraries of the time. :120, The collectors of this period helped shape the 'form' of libraries.  Though it is undetermined how many libraries were built to serve African American communities through the WPA, the WPA built and renovated at least 1,000 libraries. "Under the Abbasids, Muslims formed the vanguard of civilization.  Buckingham introduced to Parliament a Public Institution Bill allowing boroughs to charge a tax to set up libraries and museums, the first of its kind.  In Rome, the papal collections were brought together by Pope Nicholas V, in separate Greek and Latin libraries, and housed by Pope Sixtus IV, who consigned the Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana to the care of his librarian, the humanist Bartolomeo Platina in February 1475. The school library plays a great role in the life of students by serving as the store house of knowledge.The importance of a library in a school cannot be over emphasized. The American Library Association maintains a web page on navigating a challenging budget year. , The US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) recognizes libraries as an invaluable community service and has added libraries to the list of essential services eligible for emergency funding after a disaster.  The Peterborough Town Library was proposed by Reverend Abiel Abbot as a central collection of books that would be owned by the people and be free to all of the town's inhabitants. The British Library came into existence in 1973 as a result of the British Library Act. In this period, books were organized by subject. 3 vols. Liu Xin a curator of the imperial library was the first to establish a library classification system and the first book notation system. "The Fatimids and their successors at Alamut were great lovers and patrons of books, and their vast libraries attracted scholars of every creed from far and wide. Additionally, Carnegie funded construction for more than 100 academic libraries in the United States.  Books were usually chained to the shelves, reflecting the fact that manuscripts, which were created via the labour-intensive process of hand copying, were valuable possessions. Most people donât think of watching movies when going to the library, but in all actuality, the library is the perfect place to check out movies relating to history. The donator's son built the library to honor his father's memory and construction began around 113 or 114. During World War I, South Africa had a total of seventy-one subscription libraries, all governed by the English government. Many Zoroastrian temples were accompanied by a library that was designed to collect and promote religious content. , The Bibliothèque Mazarine was initially the personal library of cardinal Mazarin (1602–1661), who was a great bibliophile. , The original Deed manuscript, being kept in National Museum of Tabriz, is now a registered UNESCO World Heritage document.  It also was a university where numerous scholars and copyists translated works from other nations into Arabic. By 1877, more than 75 cities had established free libraries, and by 1900 the number had reached 300. Basrah, Damascus, Isfahan, Toos, Baghdad, Shoush, Mousel and Shiraz. New Haven: Yale University Press; Ewald, L. A. Constantine himself wanted such a library but his short rule denied him the ability to see his vision to fruition. 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